【聲明稿】國際專家來台進行國家人權委員會評估任務初步聲明

本月24至28日,「亞太地區國家人權機構論壇」(The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions, APF)及「亞洲人權發展論壇」(Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development, FORUM-ASIA)應人權公約施行監督聯盟之邀,安排Rosslyn Noonan女士、Sushil Pyakurel先生及Agantaranansa Juanda先生等三位經驗豐富的國際專家來台評估國家人權機構的設置。該小組預計將在訪台行程結束一個月之後,正式對外公佈評估報告。

針對這五日訪台行程,以下為三位專家於28日早上記者會發表的初步共同聲明,英文為三位專家之聲明原文,中文為人權公約施行監督聯盟提供之翻譯:

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TAIWAN NHRI ASSESSMENT MISSION
台灣國家人權機構評估小組

There is strong support for the establishment of a National Human Rights Institution (NHRI) in Taiwan.
台灣社會強烈支持設立國家人權機構。

This is the conclusion of the Taiwan NHRI Assessment Mission following week long consultations with civil society organisations, senior officials in government agencies, with representatives of political parties, with the Judicial Yuan, the Control Juan and the Legislative Yuan.
經過長達一週與公民團體、政府機構高階官員、政黨代表、司法院、監察院以及立法院的諮詢,這是本評估小組達成的結論。

We have also had a most welcome opportunity to brief the Vice-President on our initial findings.
我們也非常榮幸有機會當面向副總統說明我們的初步發現。

Taiwan has taken major steps to strengthen respect for human rights by domesticating the International Covenants and human rights Conventions and by establishing a process for reviewing their implementation.
為強化對人權的尊重,台灣過去已經採取幾項重要行動,包括將國際人權公約國內法化,並建立審查機制以監督其落實狀況。

And yet, as in all societies, significant human rights challenges remain.
然而,正如同其他所有社會一樣,台灣仍然面臨重大的人權挑戰。

Those consulted told the Assessment Mission that a National Human Rights Institution would assist them to better tackle pressing and persistent the human rights issues.
本次任務的諮詢對象表示,他們相信國家人權機構將能協助他們處理迫切且持續存在的人權議題。

The Assessment Mission reviewed the three options under consideration for establishing a NHRI here in Taiwan. The three options are:
評估小組檢視了目前在台灣設立國家人權機構的三個方案,亦即:

  • a stand-alone NHRI
    獨立於既有政府架構之外
  • within the President’s Office
    隸屬於總統府
  • as part of the Control Yuan
    成為監察院的一部分

We took account of the views of those consulted, the advice of constitutional and legal scholars, the unique Taiwan context with its five powers, the most efficient use of resources, and the ‘Paris Principles’ – the international guidelines for the establishment of a NHRI.
我們考量了諮詢對象的看法、憲政與法律學者的建議、台灣獨特的五權憲法脈絡、現有資源最有效的運用,以及《巴黎原則》──設立國家人權機構的國際準則。

None of the three options currently meets ‘Paris Principles. It is doubtful whether a NHRI in the President’s Office could ever meet the independence requirements of the ‘Paris Principles’. There were no advocates amongst those we consulted for a stand-alone NHRI.
現今而言,上述三個方案無一符合巴黎原則。如果將國家人權機構設置於總統府,我們對其運作獨立性能否符合《巴黎原則》抱持懷疑。在我們的諮詢過程中,也沒有任何倡議將國家人權機構獨立設於政府結構之外的意見。

The Control Yuan is not fully compliant with the ‘Paris Principles’. It is, nevertheless, our unanimous conclusion that the best option for establishing a national human rights institution at this time is to make it part of the Control Yuan. This means that the Control Yuan would have both a good governance mandate as at present, and a human rights mandate, both of equal significance.
現在的監察院並不完全符合《巴黎原則》。然而我們一致認為,現階段在台灣設立國家人權機構的最好方案,乃是令其成為監察院的一部份。這表示監察院除了承擔現有的「善治」(good governance)職權,也將擁有新的人權職權,而且兩者同等重要。

Substantial changes to ensure  full compliance with the ‘Paris Principles’ of a national human rights institution within the Control Yuan are required to the Organic Law of the Control Yuan and to the Control Act.
為了確保設於監察院內的國家人權機構能夠完全符合《巴黎原則》的要求,需要針對《監察院組織法》與《監察法》進行大幅之修改

In 1993 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the ‘Paris Principles’, which set out the required elements for a National Human Rights Institution.
聯合國大會在1993年通過了《巴黎原則》,其中列出了國家人權機構必須符合的條件。

These are elements that will have to be considered in the changes to the Control Yuan Organic Law and the Control Act:
未來修改《監察院組織法》與《監察法》時,下列要件應被考慮:

  • the NHRI must be established in the Constitution or by law
    國家人權機構必須根據憲法或法律而設立;
  • it must have a broad mandate both to protect and promote human rights
    必須要有廣泛的職權,包括保護及促進人權;
  • the mandate must cover civil and political, economic, social and cultural rights and all sectors of society
    其職權必須涵蓋公民、政治、經濟、社會與文化權利以及社會中的所有部門;
  • appointments to the NHRI must reflect the pluralism or diversity of the society and be made through an open and transparent process
    國家人權機構之委員的選任必須反映社會的多元與多樣性,且過程必須公開透明;
  • criteria for the appointments must include human rights expertise and experience
    委員選任標準必須要包含具備人權專業知識與經驗;
  • the independence of the NHRI should be guaranteed in law
    國家人權機構的獨立性應被法律保障;
  • the functions of the NHRI include providing advice to the legislature, to government, to the judiciary and to others; monitoring implementation of the international human rights standards; investigating or inquiring into violations of human rights; encouraging the provision of human rights education for government official and the wider community; and dealing complaints.
    國家人權機構的功能應包括:提供立法、行政、司法或其他部門建議;監督國際人權標準在國內的落實狀況;調查(investigating)或詢察(inquiring)人權侵害案件;推動提供給政府官員與廣大社群的人權教育;以及受理個案申訴。

The ‘Paris Principles’ also stipulate that a NHRI must be accessible to all people and should cooperate with civil society on human rights activities to extend its effectiveness.
《巴黎原則》也明確規定國家人權機構必須讓所有人民易於接近與使用,並且在人權工作上應與公民社會合作,以增進其成效。

Should a National Human Rights Institution be established as part of the Control Yuan, we would respectfully suggest that consideration be given to interpreting in English the Mandarin Chinese term for the Control Yuan as “Guardian Yuan”, which we understand needs no change to the original Chinese.
倘若將國家人權機構設立作為監察院的一部分,我們誠懇建議將監察院的英文名稱「Control Yuan」改譯為「Guardian Yuan」,據我們了解此舉不需更動中文名稱。

Should the President and the Legislative Yuan proceed to establish a National Human Rights Institution, the Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (APF) and Forum Asia ANNI are committed to assisting if requested.
未來總統與立法院若設立了國家人權機構,那麼「亞太國家人權機構論壇」(APF)以及「亞洲人權發展論壇」(FORUM-ASIA)的「亞洲國家人權委員會民間團體督導網絡」(ANNI),都非常願意在台灣需要的時候提供協助。

It has been a privilege to serve on the Taiwan NHRI Assessment Mission. We thank Covenants Watch for inviting us and supporting the Mission so effectively. We have been encouraged by the genuine commitment of everyone we met to strengthening human rights for all the people of Taiwan. We are most appreciative of how generous people have been with their time, the thoughtfulness with which they have provided us with information and insights. We have been particularly impressed with the vital and energetic members of civil society who daily work to protect and promote and to advocate for human rights.
這次能夠擔任台灣國家人權機構評估小組的成員,我們備感榮幸。感謝人權公約施行監督聯盟的邀請,以及他們在任務過程中的有效支持。我們感受到在這裡遇見的每一個人為了強化台灣人民權利保障的真心付出,並且深受鼓舞。我們無比感激眾人慷慨付出的時間與體貼,提供我們相關資訊及洞見。對於台灣蓬勃而充滿活力的公民社會中許多將保護、促進及倡導人權作為日常工作的成員,我們尤其留下深刻印象。

We hope that our report when it is finalised will be of some value to the people of Taiwan as you decide to establish a national human rights institution.
我們誠心希望,當台灣人民決心要設立國家人權機構之時,我們完成的評估報告將能提供你們些許助益。

 

Rosslyn Noonan          Sushil Pyakurel            Agantaranansa Juanda